Doris A. Paul Collection

Summary Information

Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections
Creator - Interviewee
Balbos, E. J.
Creator - Interviewee
Benally, John Ashi, 1917-1980
Creator - Interviewee
Blatchford, Paul H., 1917-2003
Creator - Interviewee
Brown, John, 1921-2009
Creator - Interviewee
Burr, Sandy, 1924-1997
Creator - Interviewee
Cannon, Lee
Creator - Interviewee
Claw, John
Creator - Interviewee
Draper, Teddy
Creator - Interviewee
Evans, Ted
Creator - Interviewee
Gorman, Carl Nelson, 1907-1998
Creator - Interviewee
Hickman, Dean, 1914-1982
Creator - Interviewee
Holiday, Samuel, 1924-
Creator - Interviewee
House, Lloyd
Creator - Interviewee
Johnston, Philip, approximately 1892-1978
Creator - Interviewee
King, Jimmie Kelly
Creator - Interviewee
Link, Martin
Creator - Interviewee
McCabe, William, 1913-1969
Creator - Interviewee
Nakai, Raymond
Paul, Doris Atkinson
Creator - Interviewer
Paul, Doris Atkinson
Creator - Interviewee
Sandoval, Peter
Creator - Interviewee
Silversmith, Sam, 1923-2001
Creator - Interviewee
Smith, Albert
Creator - Interviewee
Thompson, Frank Tsosie, 1920-2008
Creator - Interviewee
Wilson, William Dean, 1923-1999
Doris A. Paul collection
Date [inclusive]
1.0 Cubic feet with 12 cassettes
Language of Materials
Some of the materials are in Navajo.

Preferred Citation

Researchers wishing to cite this collection should include the following information: "Item title, Collection title, Collection Identifier, Michigan State University Archives & Historical Collections, East Lansing, Michigan."

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Biographical Note

Doris A. Paul was born in Upland, Indiana. She received her Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Music Education degrees from Taylor University and pursued her education in music at Northwestern University and at the University of Michigan, where she received her Master of Music degree. She has pursued a career both as a writer and a musician.

Paul's work has been extensively published, including articles in periodicals such as Music Journal, Today's Health, and the New York Times. Paul wrote the book "The Navajo Code Talkers" in 1973.

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Scope and Content

The collection contains taped interviews by Doris Paul of Navajos who served as code talkers during World War II. Also interviewed were members of the Navajo Nation government and cultural institutions, a U.S. Marine 4th Division Reunion Chairman, and Philip Johnston, the initiator of the code talker program. The interviews were used for writing her book "The Navajo Code Talkers" (1973). Also included is a taped recording of a banquet in 1975 honoring the code talkers following the Rose Bowl Parade.

There is also correspondence between Paul and the archives and notes. The correspondence, which has been redacted, contains background information about the interviews and her other research materials. The archivists' notes include details about the quality of the recordings and the content of the interview.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Michigan State University Archives and Historical Collections September 2015

Conrad Hall
888 Wilson Road, Room 101
East Lansing , MI, 48824

Conditions Governing Access

Collection is open for research.

Legal Status

Copyright: Michigan State University. Property Rights: Michigan State University.

Conditions Governing Use

Permission to publish material from this collection must be obtained from University Archives & Historical Collections, Michigan State University.

Processing Information

Processing began in 2001. During that period, it appears that a review of the tapes was done. The notes from this are included in this collection. Final processing and cassette digitization was completed in 2015.

Some correspondence between Paul and the Director of the University Archives was included to provide background information about the interviews and quality of the recordings, as well as an explanation about the disposition of the other tapes and materials. The correspondence was redacted to remove personal information and discussion of copyright.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • United States. Marine Corps.


  • Interviews (Sound recordings)
  • Letters (correspondence)

Personal Name(s)

  • Paul, Doris Atkinson


  • Navajo code talkers
  • Navajo Indians
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Communications
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Cryptography
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Participation, Indian
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal Narratives
  • World War, 1939-1945 -- Veterans

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Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements

All of the cassette tapes have been digitized.

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Collection Inventory


Box Folder

Correspondence (photocopies) 1995-1996 

1 1


Box Folder

Archivist 2001, 2015 

1 2

Author undated 

1 3
Box Folder

Publicity 1994 

1 4


Box Folder

John Claw 1971 

1 5

Lloyd House 1971 

1 6

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Box Cassette

Interviews with Lee Cannon and Philip Johnston (tape 1) 1971 

1 Tape 1

Interviews with Carl Gorman, Ted Evans, Albert Smith, and Sandy Burr (tape 2) 1971 

1 Tape 2

Interview with Jimmy King (tape 3) 1971 

1 Tape 3

Interviews with Lloyd House and Judge Dean Wilson (tape 4) 1971 

1 Tape 4

Patriotic song (in Navajo) by Dean Wilson - Side B: empty (tape 5) 1971 

1 Tape 5

Interviews with Eugene Anderson, Dean Hickman, and Frank T. Thompson (mislabelled Armstrong) (tape 6) 1971 

1 Tape 6

Interview with Philip Johnston (tape 7) 1971 

1 Tape 7

Interviews with Philip Johnston, John Claw, E. J. Galbos, and Martin Link (tape 8) 1971 

1 Tape 8

Interviews with Raymond Nakai, Sam Silversmith (tape 9) 1971 

1 Tape 9

Interviews with Teddy Draper, John Benally & PM session, Philip Johnston, Carl Gorman, Wm. McCabe, John Benally, Philip Johnston, then Teddy Draper, Peter Sandoval, & a little J. Brown (tape 10) 1971 

1 Tape 10

Interviews with Jimmy King and Sam Holiday (tape 11) 1971 

1 Tape 11

Interview with John Brown, Jr. - Barbecue Table, Blatchford & Gorman; Miscellaneous, Interview (Wilson), Business Organizational Mtg. (tape 12) 1971 

1 Tape 12

Navajo Dinner, January 2, 1975 (tape 13) 1975 

1 Tape 13

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